I notice that many developers whom will encounter some bad exceptions while trying to integrate spring and hiberante.
Actually I somehow had them because they are very normal situation in progress of integration.
Here I want to clarify this transaction related problem.


org.hibernate.HibernateException: No Session found for current thread

This is pretty ambiguous because we think Spring will manage session, but there is something hidden in hibernate.
Hibernate need to explicitly openSession first in the SessionFactory to gain session and cache it in CurrentSessionContext(ThreadLocal by default) container. You can use getCurrentSession to get session from ThreadLocal or other CurrentSessionContext if it already created from previous open action.
By my experiment, you will get this No Session found for current thread exception when you trying to get session without explicitly open it.

Session session = sessionFactory.openSession();
//You can got the opened session somewhere in this thread
Session session = sessionFactory.getCurrentSession();

But you will receive Exception if getCurrentSession without invoking create session first.

Session session = sessionFactory.getCurrentSession();
//Exception here

After explaining the exception above, you now may know root cause of this problem so as to better understand its scheme.


let’s learn to configure transaction manager.

There are two way of configuring transaction manager in spring integrated with hibernate.

  1. programmatic
  2. Declarative

You can easily understand that the programmatic way of configuring transaction manager is to beginTransaction and commit manually in Java code, which is cumbersome but is actually ease your worries as everything are under your control. This article will not introduce it at all.
I will not recommend it to you, because Declarative could still have very good control but much higher productivity and better code style by good modularization.

1. Add Spring transaction manager for Hibernate

Add this bean in spring’s applicationContext.xml configuration file to enable spring delegate transaction manager functionality.

<!-- transaction manager -->
<bean id="transactionManager" class="org.springframework.orm.hibernate4.HibernateTransactionManager">
    <property name="sessionFactory" ref="sessionFactory" />

2. Declare transaction points and transaction configure

The declaration for this could have three ways of configuring this step.
It is recommended to annotate @Transactional on service layer since service will handle most of business logic and could guarantee the overall business transactional consistency.
There is another thing to refer, the propagation of transaction mean to spread from invoker to invokee, rather passing from bilateral method, see examples:

//If this method somehow being transactional by inheritence or directly annotated
//if dao.save() and  dao.update() are annotated with @transactional respectively
//the invoked dao.save() then could get transaction that is opened by invoker saveRoot
public Address saveRoot(Address bean)
    //The transaction opened by saveRoot will pass to method in it
    //This transaction is exactly the same one with saveRoot one
    //So this transaction is consistent.
    //So as this method.
    return dao.save(bean);
    //The whole saveRoot method is transactional consistent, and will commit if nothing bad happen, or just rollback automatically if exception thrown

//another example for showing
//if dao.save() and  dao.update() are annotated with @transactional respectively
//notice there is no @Transactional on the doSave method
public void doSave(Address bean)
    //The transaction opened by the first dao.save method
    //That transaction will commit here

    //So there is no transactional consistency.
    //transaction will open separately for update
    //Then update method transaction commited here.
    //Thus operations will commit separately, which result in very bad transaction management
    //like nothing useful

For more please visit spring framework reference.

1. AOP based

AOP based transaction is very clear and simple:

<!-- transaction manager advisor -->
<tx:advice id="txAdvice" transaction-manager="transactionManager">
        <tx:method name="find*" propagation="REQUIRED" read-only="true" />
        <tx:method name="get*" propagation="REQUIRED" read-only="true" />
        <tx:method name="count*" propagation="REQUIRED" read-only="true" />
        <tx:method name="*" propagation="REQUIRED" />
<!-- AOP transaction inserter -->
    <aop:pointcut id="txPointcut" expression="execution(* rugal.sample.core.service.impl..*(..))" />
    <aop:advisor advice-ref="txAdvice" pointcut-ref="txPointcut" />

The txAdvice tells transaction manage how to make transaction propagation or some other transactional related metadata.
aop:config is to create cut point aspect, then delivery this point to transaction manage to make transactional management, after completion of method invocation, AOP will cut a point to let txManager to commit or rollback so as to ensure transactional consistency.

Beware you must configre AOP at the implementation class rather than interface.

2. annotation driven

Add snipplet in applicationContext.xml to enable annotation driven transaction management.

<!-- Enable annotation driven transaction manager -->
<tx:annotation-driven transaction-manager="transactionManager"  />

This is all XML that needed for annotation driven configuration, pretty simple.

Then you can add @Transactional annotation on any method in @Service implementation class, or just on the service class to enable the whole class to be transactional managed and in same transaction behavior.
Beware that you must put this annotation on implementation class rather than interface.

Some samples:

public Address save(Address bean)

@Transactional(readOnly = true)
public Address findById(Integer id)

//Or you can annotate it on class level to enable the any method in class share same transaction behavior.
public class AddressServiceImpl implements AddressService

3. mixed style

You can also mix these two styles together to make it flexible.


My depiction completed, now have a test, just to throw an RuntimeException to test data consistency, you will find hibernate DEBUG tells you that it rollback sucessfully.


06 July 2014